Sarnath-(240 km from Bodh gaya)
Buddha preached here his first historic sermon. Eariar Sarnath was called Rishipattan.The five disciples who followed him there were surprised to see the mesmerizing, glowing countenance of Buddha. They were now ready to address his disciples. This moment is know as Dharmachakra Paravartan. There is dhamek stupa, which signifies the ‘seat of the holy Buddha’. Emperaror Ashoka visited Sarnath in 273-232 B.C. Ashoka also erected a smooth glistening stone pillar here. The lion capital on top of this pillar is now National Emblem of India.
According to history, Varansi was founded by the god shiva. It is regarded as one of seven holy cities which can provide Moksha. Varansi was the centre of activity for intellectuals and theologians during the middle ages. Several major saint were born here, including Kabir, who hailed as the most outstanding of Bhakti movment and Ravidas was also born here. Ravidas was socio-religious reformer, mystic, poet, traveler and spiritual figure.
Varanasi is one of the oldest living cities in the world. It is called the city of ghats (river banks). Banaras hindu university is in varansi.
Lord Buddha visited kaushambi many times the reign of Udayana on his effort to spread the dharma, the Noble Eightfold Path and the Four Noble Truths. Udayana was a Buddhist upasaka. Emperror Ashoka gave importance to Kaushambi and placed a pillar in Kaushambi, which has inscriptions there in pali.